Tensor G5 development at TSMC for Pixel 10 progressing

Tensor G5 Development at TSMC for Google Pixel 10: An In-depth Outline

Tensor G5, the latest and most advanced system-on-chip (SoC) developed by Google for its upcoming flagship smartphone, the Pixel 10, is being produced at TSMC (Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company). This partnership between Google and TSMC signifies a significant step forward in the evolution of Tensor processors, which have already proven to be game-changers in machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) applications. The collaboration between these tech giants will undoubtedly result in a groundbreaking SoC that will set new benchmarks for performance and power efficiency.


Before delving into the specifics of Tensor G5’s development, it is essential to understand the significance of TSMC and its role in the semiconductor industry. As the world’s largest dedicated semiconductor foundry, TSMC manufactures chips for various leading technology companies, including Apple, AMD, Nvidia, and Qualcomm. TSMC’s advanced manufacturing processes enable these companies to produce high-performance and power-efficient chips for their products.

Google Tensor Processing Units (TPUs):

Google introduced its first-generation custom-built Tensor Processing Unit (TPU) in 2016. The TPU is a specialized application-specific integrated circuit designed to accelerate machine learning tasks, particularly those involving neural networks. Tensor processors have since become an essential component of Google’s data centers, powering services such as Google Translate, Photos, and Search.

Tensor G1-G4:

Google released several iterations of its Tensor Processing Units, including Tensor G1, G2, and GThese processors have been integrated into Google’s data centers, as well as its consumer devices such as the Google Home and Pixel smartphones. Tensor G4, the most recent iteration, was used in the Google Pixel 5 series.

Tensor G5 Development:

Tensor G5, the successor to Tensor G4, is being developed in collaboration with TSMThe new SoC is expected to offer significant improvements over its predecessor in terms of performance and power efficiency. According to rumors, Tensor G5 will be built on TSMC’s 7nm+ process technology, allowing for smaller transistors and more efficient power consumption. Furthermore, Tensor G5 is likely to incorporate a more significant number of TPUs, leading to faster machine learning tasks and better AI performance.

Impact on Google Pixel 10:

The integration of Tensor G5 in the upcoming Google Pixel 10 is expected to result in a significant improvement in the smartphone’s AI capabilities. The new SoC will enable faster and more accurate on-device machine learning tasks, leading to improved camera performance, voice recognition, and overall user experience. Furthermore, Tensor G5’s integration is expected to position the Google Pixel 10 as a leader in AI-powered smartphones, providing a strong competitive edge against other flagship devices.

Tensor G5 development at TSMC for Pixel 10 progressing

I. Introduction

Tensor Processing Units, or TPUs, are custom-built hardware devices designed specifically for machine learning and artificial intelligence workloads. Google, a leading tech company in these fields, has been utilizing TPUs extensively since their introduction in 2016.

Background on Tensor Processing Units (TPUs)

Google’s custom TPUs were developed in collaboration with the tech giant’s Advanced Technology and Projects group. These TPUs are optimized for deep neural network computations, featuring high-throughput matrix multiplication capabilities. In addition to custom TPUs, Google also employs other types of processing units for machine learning tasks:

Tensor Cores

NVIDIA’s Tensor Cores are specialized components found in some of their high-end Graphics Processing Units, or GPUs. These tensor cores can perform mixed-precision matrix multiplications that are crucial for machine learning workloads.

Tensor Processing Units (GPUs)

GPUs, such as NVIDIA’s V100, are versatile processors capable of handling a wide range of computational tasks. While not specifically designed for machine learning like TPUs, GPUs can still perform these tasks effectively using software optimizations.

Overview of the Tensor G5 development project at TSMC for Google Pixel

In a significant move towards integrating machine learning hardware directly into consumer devices, Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) has announced the development of the Tensor G5. This custom TPU is designed for Google and will be integrated into the upcoming Google Pixel 10. The Tensor G5 is expected to deliver significant improvements in machine learning performance, enabling advanced features and enhancing user experience. Stay tuned for more updates on this exciting development!

Tensor G5 development at TSMC for Pixel 10 progressing

Tensor G5 Development Process

Collaboration between Google, TSMC, and other key partners

Role of each partner

a. Google:

  • Research: Google led the research and development of the Tensor G5, exploring potential technologies, materials, and manufacturing processes.
  • Design: Google was responsible for the design of the Tensor G5 chip, creating computer-aided designs (CAD) and conducting simulations.
  • Software development: Google developed the software that would run on the Tensor G5, integrating it with other components of the Pixel 10 device.
  • Integration: Google worked on combining the Tensor G5 chip with other components, ensuring a seamless integration into the Pixel 10.

b. TSMC:

  • Manufacturing: Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company (TSMC) took charge of the manufacturing process, producing the physical Tensor G5 chips using their advanced process technology and fabrication techniques.

c. Other partners:

  • Supply of essential components and materials: Various suppliers provided necessary components and materials for the fabrication and integration of the Tensor G5 chip into the Pixel 10 device.

Key milestones in the development process

Research phase:

  • Exploration of potential technologies, materials, and manufacturing processes.

Design and prototyping phase:

  • CAD modeling
  • Simulation
  • Testing

Fabrication phase:

Production of silicon wafers containing the Tensor G5 chip.

Integration phase:

Combining the Tensor G5 chip with other components in the Pixel 10 device.

5. Testing and validation phase:

  • Performance testing
  • Power consumption evaluation
  • Compatibility assessment

6. Mass production phase:

Manufacturing large quantities of the Tensor G5 chips for the Pixel 10 device.

I Tensor G5 Architecture and Features

Overview of Tensor G5’s architecture

Tensor G5 is the latest custom-designed tensor processing unit (TPU) from Google, engineered specifically for machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) workloads. Sizewise, Tensor G5 is Google’s most significant TPU generation yet, boasting an impressive number of tensor cores. The power efficiency of Tensor G5 is another notable improvement, allowing it to perform more computations per watt than its predecessors. The architecture incorporates advanced interconnects, memory systems, and power management features to achieve these enhancements.

Custom tensor processing units (TPUs) or tensor cores

Custom-designed tensor processing units (TPUs), also referred to as tensor cores, are Google’s innovation to accelerate AI workloads. Tensor G5 features a large number of these units, which are optimized for machine learning and deep learning computations.

Advanced interconnects, memory systems, and power management features


Tensor G5’s advanced interconnects enable low-latency communication between tensor processing units and other components of the system.

Memory systems

Tensor G5 introduces a new high-bandwidth memory (HBM) system, which offers improved data access and reduces latency. This enhancement is essential for handling large datasets required by AI workloads.

Power management features

Google’s power management techniques enable Tensor G5 to maintain high performance while minimizing power consumption. This feature is essential for data centers where energy efficiency is crucial.

Comparison of Tensor G5 with its predecessors and competitors


In terms of performance, Tensor G5 significantly outpaces its predecessors in handling AI workloads, machine learning, deep learning, and other data-intensive applications. Compared to competitors, Tensor G5 offers a substantial edge in processing power for AI-related tasks.

Performance benchmarks: Artificial intelligence (AI) workloads, machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL), etc.

Google has published several performance benchmarks demonstrating Tensor G5’s superiority in AI and ML tasks compared to its predecessors.

Power efficiency: Watts per teraflop (W/TFLOP) or watts per trillion operations per second (W/TOPS)

Power efficiency

Tensor G5 boasts impressive power efficiency, with a W/TFLOP of around 0.07 or a W/TOPS of approximately 0.01This makes Tensor G5 one of the most energy-efficient AI processing units in the market.

Tensor G5’s impact on Google services, applications, and user experience

Impact on Google services

Tensor G5’s powerful performance enhancements will significantly improve various Google services, including image recognition, natural language processing (NLP), augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR).

Improved performance in areas like image recognition, natural language processing (NLP), augmented reality (AR), and virtual reality (VR)

Impact on Google applications

Tensor G5’s performance gains will translate to faster, more responsive applications like Google Assistant, search, maps, Gmail, Photos, Drive, Docs, Sheets, and other services.

Enhancements in Google Assistant, search, maps, Gmail, Photos, Drive, Docs, Sheets, and other applications

Impact on user experience

Tensor G5’s improvements will lead to a more intuitive and faster user experience across all Google services and applications, making it an essential component of Google’s technological infrastructure.

Faster on-device machine learning inference for custom user models or third-party apps

Faster on-device machine learning inference enables more personalized and efficient user experiences for custom user models or third-party applications.

Tensor G5 development at TSMC for Pixel 10 progressing

Tensor G5 Manufacturing and Supply Chain Challenges

Fabrication process complexities

  1. Process technology nodes: The production of Tensor G5 chips involves advanced technology nodes such as 5nm, 7nm, or others. This necessitates stringent material selection, purity, and handling requirements to ensure optimal chip performance.
  2. Fabrication yield and reliability concerns: Ensuring a high fabrication yield and reliable chips is paramount. This includes addressing potential manufacturing defects, process variability, and design for manufacturing considerations.

Integration with other components in the Pixel 10 device

Thermal management: Thermal management is essential to maintain optimal temperature for the Tensor G5. This can be achieved through various cooling methods and effective thermal design.

Power distribution and regulation: Balancing power consumption between the Tensor G5 and other components, like the main processor (CPU), memory, power management, and interconnects, is crucial.

Scalability of manufacturing to meet demand for the Pixel 10 and potential future devices

  1. Capacity expansion plans: To meet increasing demand, companies may consider expanding manufacturing capacity through building new fabs, increasing production lines, or partnering with other foundries.
  2. Ramping up the manufacturing process: Optimizing yield, reducing cycle time, and improving reliability are essential to scale up production efficiently.

Ensuring a robust supply chain through partnerships, inventory management, and risk mitigation strategies

Partner relationships: Building strong relationships with multiple sources for essential components and materials can help ensure a robust supply chain.

Inventory management: Effective inventory management is crucial, including monitoring stock levels, lead times, and demand forecasts to minimize potential supply chain disruptions.

Risk mitigation strategies: Diversification of suppliers, implementing contingency plans, and maintaining strong relationships with key partners can help minimize risks in the supply chain.

Tensor G5 development at TSMC for Pixel 10 progressing


In the rapidly evolving world of technology, the role of advanced silicon technologies like Google’s Tensor G5 chip cannot be overstated. For


and its latest flagship device, the

Pixel 10

, Tensor G5 represents a significant leap forward in terms of artificial intelligence (AI), machine learning (ML), and deep learning (DL) capabilities. By integrating this custom silicon into its devices, Google is able to deliver superior performance in areas such as image processing, speech recognition, and natural language understanding.

Beyond the realm of individual tech companies, the broader

tech industry

stands to benefit immensely from continued innovation in AI, ML, DL, and other domains fueled by advanced silicon technologies. With each new generation of chips, we can expect to see more intelligent devices that learn from their environment, interact with users in natural ways, and provide personalized experiences.

However, the path to realizing this vision is not without challenges. Manufacturing complexities, supply chain risks, and performance enhancements present significant hurdles that must be addressed.

Manufacturing complexities

arise from the ever-shrinking size of transistors and the need for increasingly sophisticated fabrication processes. One potential solution lies in the adoption of advanced manufacturing techniques, such as extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), which allow for finer feature sizes and more precise patterning.

Supply chain risks

, on the other hand, can be mitigated through strategic partnerships and diversification of suppliers. Google’s collaboration with


, a leading semiconductor manufacturer, is a prime example of this approach. By working closely together on custom silicon development, both companies can share expertise and resources to minimize risks and maximize innovation.


performance enhancements

will continue to drive the development of new silicon technologies. This includes advancements in power efficiency, memory capacity, and parallel processing capabilities. By pushing the boundaries of what is possible with silicon, we can expect to see new applications and use cases emerge that were once unimaginable.